来源:BMC Geriatrics 发布时间:2020/3/11 10:42:21
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给老年人更多去运动的理由 | BMC Geriatrics

论文标题:A qualitative study of older adults’ perspectives on initiating exercise and mindfulness practice

期刊:BMC Geriatrics

作者:Diana C. Parra, Julie Loebach Wetherell et.al

发表时间:2019/12/23

数字识别码:10.1186/s12877-019-1375-9

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原文作者:Diana C. Parra

运动和正念练习都已被证明对于老年人的健康大有裨益。但是,我们对许多老年人为什么不愿意实践这些活动以及该如何激励他们参与其中却知之甚少。在接下来的分享中,BMC Geriatrics上的一项新研究的作者讨论了他们询问一部分老年人关于运动和练习正念的好处和障碍时所得到的启示。

图1

预计到2050年,美国60岁以上的人口将翻一番。这带来了一个日益严重的社会挑战:如何确保这些老年人具备健康的生活方式并保持参与社会活动所需的技能?

锻炼和正念练习是两种有望在认知、情感和身体方面有益于老年人的干预措施。运动有助于防止跌倒,延迟残疾,增强认知功能,改善抑郁症,并逆转代谢疾病。正念练习则能够减少压力、焦虑和孤独,减少全身炎症,改善心理健康、睡眠、意识、自我效能、认知功能和心理健康。鉴于锻炼和正念练习的这些好处,我们想知道是什么阻碍了老年人开始并维持这些有益于健康的活动。然而,研究人员很少在此背景下探索老年人的偏好和动机,正是这方面研究的匮乏催生了我们的定性研究。该研究发表在BMC Geriatrics上,比较了老年人如何看待参与并坚持正念练习和运动益处和障碍。

我们如何研究这些问题

我们的实验关注了41名年龄在65-85岁之间的成年人。他们在最近参加了一项临床试验,包括基于正念的减压(Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, MBSR)训练、结构化运动或两者兼而有之。这三种方法都是有效且可行的干预措施,能够促进处于心理、社会、情感和身体变化中的老年人的健康。但是,我们希望从体验过每种方法的研究参与者的角度,深入了解哪些方法最为有效。我们使用半结构化的访谈向参与者提出开放式问题,了解其参与正念练习和运动的益处、阻碍和促进因素。

益处和阻碍

大多数参与者报告说,他们各自接受的干预措施的使得自己的精神、身体和社会状况都有所改善。参与者表示,正念训练增强了他们的自我认知和自省,增强了自我接纳程度。他们还能够更好地照顾自己,也拥有了更好的家庭和社会关系。事实上,社交益处和社区意识是老年人继续参与锻炼或MBSR干预的主要动力。参与调查者还指出,结构化运动可以增强他们的行动能力和肌肉。总体而言,我们的发现表明,正念训练的潜在益处可能比单独运动更广泛,因为正念训练包括对家庭、社会和婚姻功能的积极影响。

运动和正念训练组的主要障碍都是时间管理。许多参与调查者说,尽管已经退休,但他们仍然很忙。其他方面的障碍还包括在家或者频繁的旅行中的练习中断。这与先前研究的发现一致,老年人会由于更具竞争力的其他优先事项而拒绝运动。

动力和机会

总体而言,研究表明,正念训练与运动可以作为在老年人中培养健康生活方式的重要工具。而运动和MBSR的益处本身就是一种动力。然而,关于如何激励老年人改变健康行为的研究还很缺乏。根据这些回答我们发现,如果他们不能感受到参与研究的责任或研究团队提供的激励,就可能不会开始做出健康的行为改变。这表明,老年人可能需要更多的激励来开始和维持行为的改变,而不是仅仅是为了自己的健康利益。

我们还询问了哪些社区资源可以协助或维持运动和正念训练。参与者建议了一些方法,包括在图书馆、社区学院、Silver Sneakers、OASIS国际或社区中心提供运动与正念课程,以及在公园中推广免费或赠送的瑜伽课程。将正念训练和运动纳入社区方案,应该作为保证老年人更好融入社会的基石。

BMC Geriatrics is an open access journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles in all aspects of the health and healthcare of older people, including the effects of healthcare systems and policies. The journal also welcomes research focused on the aging process, including cellular, genetic, and physiological processes and cognitive modifications.

Citation Impact

2.818 - 2-year IF

3.458 - 5-year IF

1.420 - SNIP

1.352 - SJR

摘要:

Background

Mindfulness practice and exercise are ways by which older adults can improve and maintain their physical, emotional and cognitive health.

Methods

This single-site qualitative study gathered insights of older adults’ perceptions about initiating and maintaining mindfulness and exercise practices. We carried out focus groups with 41 adults aged 65–85 who had recently initiated Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), structured exercise, or their combination as part of participation in a clinical trial. We used a semi-structured interview to ask them open-ended questions regarding the benefits, barriers and facilitators of participating in mindfulness and/or exercise interventions. The interview also included questions regarding translation of these practices into community settings as well as the long-term maintenance potential of these practices.

Results

Older adults indicated that the mindfulness training increased their awareness and self-reflection and fostered a more self-accepting attitude. Furthermore, they improved their self-care habits and reported having better familial and social relationships. The main barrier for both the exercise and Mindfulness group was time management. The social benefits and sense of community were some of the primary motivators for older adults in the exercise and/or MBSR interventions. However, the research on how to motivate older adults to initiate healthy behavioral changes also needs to be answered. The benefits of exercise and MBSR are a motivation in and of themselves, as indicated by some of the participants.

Conclusions

This study indicates that mindfulness training and exercise can serve as tools to cultivate important health lifestyle qualities among older adults, who are in the midst of mental, social, emotional and physical change. If it were not for the purpose of the research or the incentives provided by the research team, these older adults may have never started the healthy behavioral changes. From the responses, this may indicate that older adults may need more incentives to begin and maintain behavioral changes other than for their own health benefit.

(来源:科学网)

 
 
 
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