来源:Frontiers of Architectural Research 发布时间:2024/3/12 12:49:04
FoAR | 从“原型”到“典型”:伊斯坦布尔海贝利亚达疗养院 Block A 的建筑与空间发展 (1924-1945)

论文标题:From “prototype” to “model”: Architectural and spatial development of Block A (1924–1945) of Istanbuls Heybeliada Sanatorium(从“原型”到“典型”:伊斯坦布尔海贝利亚达疗养院 Block A 的建筑与空间发展 (1924-1945))

期刊:Frontiers of Architectural Research

作者:Deniz Avci-Hosanli, Cansu Degirmencioglu

发表时间:15 Feb 2024




建筑学 / 城乡规划 / 风景园林

本刊已被 A&HCI / CSCD / Scopus / DOAJ / CSTPCD 收录

Frontiers of Architectural Research(建筑学研究前沿/FoAR)于2月初在线发布了2024年第一期,共12篇文章。本期推送为其中一篇文章的摘要和大纲,内容采用中文表达,方便大家阅读。推文内容不可直接引用。


论 文 题 目

Manuscript Title

From “prototype” to “model”: Architectural and spatial development of Block A (1924–1945) of Istanbuls Heybeliada Sanatorium

从“原型”到“典型”:伊斯坦布尔海贝利亚达疗养院 Block A 的建筑与空间发展 (1924-1945)


作 者


Deniz Avci-Hosanli (a)*, Cansu Degirmencioglu (b)

(a) Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, Izmir University of Economics, Izmir 35330, Turkey

(b) TUM School of Engineering and Design, Department of Architecture, Technical University of Munich, Munich 80333, Germany


论 文 摘 要


This article examines Block A, the first block-style building in Heybeliada Sanatorium in Istanbul. The purpose of this research is to understand its architectural and spatial development and discuss how in fact it was a “prototype” of Turkish sanatoria. Approached with a three-step methodology (documentation/evaluation/results) this research conducts architectural and spatial analysis on Block A. Primary sources like architectural documentation and restitution drawings, the writings of the institution’s head doctor Tevfik Ismail Gokce, periodicals on tuberculosis (TB), as well as pertinent literature are utilized. The findings demonstrate that Block A’s development (1924-1945) was the result of knowledge transfer that introduced the universal sanatorium design principles, spatial experiments, adaptation to sociocultural norms, and trial-and-error processes. Not only it had a major impact on shaping of the second block-type building in the complex, the “model” Block B, but it also became exemplary of the subsequent Turkish sanatoria. The originality of this article is its exploration of the changing and evolving Block A in its resonation with the cultural tensions of Turkey’s modernization process. This was established via the assessment of budgetary issues, medical developments and climatic experiments, the social issue of scarcity of TB beds in the country, spatial practices to separate the sexes as reflections of local traditions and culture in the shaping of spaces.

本文考察了伊斯坦布尔海贝利亚达疗养院第一座街区式建筑 Block A。本文的研究目的是了解其建筑与空间发展,并探讨其如何成为土耳其疗养院的“原型”。本研究采用三步法(文献/评估/结果)对 Block A 进行建筑与空间分析。主要资料来源包括建筑学文献和修复后的图纸、该机构主任医生 Tevfik Ismail Gokce 的著作、结核病期刊以及相关文献。研究结果表明,Block A 的发展(1924-1945)是知识转化的结果,它引入了通用的疗养院设计原则、空间实验、对社会文化规则的适应性,以及反复试验的过程。它不仅对建筑综合体中第二个街区类建筑(Block B)的塑造产生了重大影响,而且它也成为后来土耳其疗养院的典范。本文的独创之处在于它探讨了 Block A 在土耳其现代化进程中不断演变的文化紧张关系。这是通过评估预算问题、医疗发展、气候实验、土耳其结核病床位短缺的社会问题,以及本土传统文化在空间塑造上的作用(例如,将两性分开的空间实践)来确定的。


关 键 词


Sanatorium architecture / 疗养院建筑

Tuberculosis / 结核病

History of healthcare / 医疗保健史

Early republican Turkey / 共和早期的土耳其

Istanbul / 伊斯坦布尔


章 节 标 题

Sections Title

1. Introduction / 引言

1.1. Historical and theoretical background / 历史与理论背景

1.1.1. The historical background of sanatorium architecture / 疗养院建筑的历史背景

1.1.2. Tuberculosis in early republican Turkey and the importance of Heybeliada Sanatoriums Block A / 土耳其共和早期的结核病与海贝利亚达疗养院中的Block A

1.2. Aim, scope, and methodology / 研究目标、研究范围、研究方法

2. A set of prototypes: Block A (1924–1945) / 一整套的建筑原型:Block A (1924–1945)

2.1. A set of pavilions: the architectural development of Block A / 一系列的馆:Block A 的建筑发展

2.1.1. From a historic mansion to a concrete block / 从一座历史性宅邸到一处混凝土街区

2.1.2. The impact of regional climate on architecture / 地域性气候对建筑的影响

2.2. A set of challenges: the spatial development of Block A / 一系列挑战:Block A 的空间发展

2.2.1. The problem of bed scarcity / 结核病床位短缺的问题

2.2.2. Separation of sexes: morality and tradition in spatial arrangements / 两性隔离:空间设置中的道德与传统

3. The finalized model: Block B / 最终敲定的典型:Block B

4. Conclusion / 结论


主 要 插 图


▲ 图一:海贝利亚达疗养院 Block A 的正面及南立面(1939-1951)。 © 本文作者

▲ 图二:Block A 的开发过程及各馆编码。 © 本文作者

▲ 图三:A3馆和A4馆。左图: 正在建设中的A4馆。Hakimiyet-i Milliye, October 29, 1933, p. 65。右图: 作者自摄 (2014)。 © 本文作者

▲ 图四:A1馆中沙发空间的多种用途。 © 本文作者

▲ 图五:A3馆的阳台。 资料来源: “S?hh?ye Mecmuas?. Fevkalade Nu¨shas?.” Tu¨rkiye Cumhuriyeti S?hhat ve_Ic¸timai Muavenet Vekaleti, 1933, pp.70-71.

▲ 图六:正在扩建中的海贝利疗养院。通过增加一栋新建筑(A5馆),床位将增加至300张。 资料来源: “Heybeli Sanatoryomu Genis‚letiliyor”. Aks‚am, October 2, 1936.

▲ 图七:海贝利亚达疗养院 Block A 多年来的发展变化(平面图)。 © 本文作者

▲ 图八:海贝利亚达疗养院 Block A 与Block B 的空间布局比较。 © 本文作者


作 者 介 绍

Authors Information

Deniz Avci Hosanli

Assistant Professor

Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design

Izmir University of Economics, Turkey

Cultural heritage preservation specialist, interior architect and environmental designer (MSc, METU; BSc, Baskent University) and architectural historian (PhD, METU) assistant professor Deniz Avci-Hosanli (Izmir University of Economics, IAED) specializes on the architectural historiography and conservation of the twentieth-century Modern Movement architecture and its interiors in Turkey by the assessment of different building typologies, especially housing and healthcare architecture, and utilizes films as archives in her research. Her PhD dissertation (2018) titled ‘Housing the modern nation: The transformation of residential architecture in Ankara during the 1920s’ contributed to the missing gap in the literature of the 1920s’ housing in Ankara. Researcher in the project titled ‘Architects who left their marks in Ankara’ and committee member in ‘docomomo_turkey Interior Design’, she is currently co-leading two projects, one titled ‘Architecture of Convalescence: Mapping the Sanatorium Heritage of Turkey’ supported by the Turkish Architects’ Association-1927 with Modern Architecture Research Award and the other titled ‘Between Medicine and Architecture in Mid-Century Turkey: Ankara’s Atatürk (Keçiören) Sanatorium’ supported by VEKAM with Ankara Research Awards. In 2023, she joined the ‘DATUMM – Documenting and Archiving Modern Turkish Furniture’ team as one of the researchers.

Cansu Degirmencioglu

PhD Candidate

TUM School of Engineering and Design

Department of Architecture, Technical University of Munich, Germany

Cansu Degirmencioglu is a PhD candidate at TUM since 2019 and a DAAD fellow since 2020. She received her bachelor’s degree in Interior Architecture and her master’s degree in Architectural History at Istanbul Technical University. Degirmencioglu instructed undergraduate courses on architectural history and history of furniture design. Her research was published in several journals, such as the Journal of Architectural Education (JAE) and edited books. Currently she is co-authoring a book chapter on visual representations of tuberculosis, and has been co-leading a grant-winning research project titled “Architecture of Convalescence: Mapping the Sanatorium Heritage of Turkey” since May 2022. Degirmencioglu’s current scholarly research mainly focuses on the cultural modernization of early Republican Turkey, the intertwined histories of medicine and modern architecture, and the history of lighting design.


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