作者:李言 来源:科学网微信公众号 发布时间:2023/10/22 11:10:22
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《科学》(20231020出版)一周论文导读

 

编译 | 李言

Science,  20 OCT 2023, Volume 382 Issue 6668

《科学》2023年10月20日,第382卷,6668期

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地球科学Earth Sciences

Rapid ozone depletion after humidification of the stratosphere by the Hunga Tonga Eruption

汤加火山喷发使平流层加湿后导致的快速臭氧耗损

▲ 作者:STEPHANIE EVAN , JEROME BRIOUDE et al.

▲ 链接:https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.adg2551

▲ 摘要:

2022年1月15日汤加火山的喷发为探索热带火山喷发对平流层的早期影响提供了很好的机会。在留尼汪岛附近的气球观测显示,从火山喷出的水蒸气量非常巨大。平流层湿度的增加、辐射冷却和火山羽流中气溶胶表面积的扩大为热带平流层在短短一周内迅速消耗5%的臭氧创造了理想条件。

氯化氢体积减少了0.4 ppbv,而一氧化氯体积增加了0.4 ppbv,这为火山羽流中氯的活化提供了令人信服的证据。这项研究增强了我们对火山喷发对平流层化学的影响的理解,并提供了在气候变化中可能会发生的化学变化的见解。

▲ Abstract:

The eruption of the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha’apai volcano on 15 January 2022 offered a good opportunity to explore the early impacts of tropical volcanic eruptions on stratospheric composition. Balloon-borne observations near Réunion Island revealed the unprecedented amount of water vapor injected by the volcano. The enhanced stratospheric humidity, radiative cooling, and expanded aerosol surface area in the volcanic plume created the ideal conditions for swift ozone depletion of 5% in the tropical stratosphere in just 1 week. The decrease in hydrogen chloride by 0.4 parts per million by volume (ppbv) and the increase in chlorine monoxide by 0.4 ppbv provided compelling evidence for chlorine activation within the volcanic plume. This study enhances our understanding of the effect of this unusual volcanic eruption on stratospheric chemistry and provides insights into possible chemistry changes that may occur in a changing climate.

天文学Astronomy

A luminous fast radio burst that probes the Universe at redshift 1

在红移1探测宇宙的明亮快速射电暴

▲ 作者:S. D. RYDER, K. W. BANNISTER et al.

▲ 链接:https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.adf2678

▲ 摘要:

快速射电暴(FRBs)是源自河外距离的毫秒持续时间的射电脉冲。无线电色散是通过介入性等离子体传递给爆发的,这些等离子体大多位于星系间介质中。在这项研究中,我们观测到了FRB 20220610A,并将其定位于一个形态复杂的宿主星系系统,红移为1.016±0.002。

爆发红移和色散测量与星系间介质中等离子体柱的穿越一致,并扩展了在较低红移测量的那些量之间的关系。这个电暴显示了通过额外的湍流磁化等离子体的证据,可能与宿主星系有关。

▲ Abstract:

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration pulses of radio emission originating from extragalactic distances. Radio dispersion is imparted on each burst by intervening plasma, mostly located in the intergalactic medium. In this work, we observe the burst FRB 20220610A and localize it to a morphologically complex host galaxy system at redshift 1.016 ± 0.002. The burst redshift and dispersion measure are consistent with passage through a substantial column of plasma in the intergalactic medium and extend the relationship between those quantities measured at lower redshift. The burst shows evidence for passage through additional turbulent magnetized plasma, potentially associated with the host galaxy.

植物学Botany

Idiosyncratic and dose-dependent epistasis drives variation in tomato fruit size

特异性和剂量依赖上位性影响番茄果实大小的变异

▲ 作者:LYNDSEY AGUIRRE, ANAT HENDELMAN et al.

▲ 链接:https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.adi5222

▲ 摘要:

在这项研究中,我们使用植物干细胞回路中的天然和工程顺式调控等位基因来系统地评估控制番茄果实大小的上位性关系。我们将一个启动子等位基因系列与另外两个基因座相结合,从46个基因型中收集了超过30000个表型数据点,以量化等位基因强度如何转化上位性。

我们揭示了饱和剂量依赖关系以及等位基因特异性特异性相互作用,包括在驯化过程中驱动果实大小变化的等位基因之间的相互作用。我们的方法和发现揭示了一个未被充分探索的上位性维度,其中基因调控网络中的顺式调控等位基因多样性引发了非线性的、不可预测的相互作用,这些相互作用形成了表型。

▲ Abstract:

In this study, we used natural and engineered cis-regulatory alleles in a plant stem-cell circuit to systematically evaluate epistatic relationships controlling tomato fruit size. Combining a promoter allelic series with two other loci, we collected over 30,000 phenotypic data points from 46 genotypes to quantify how allele strength transforms epistasis. We revealed a saturating dose-dependent relationship but also allele-specific idiosyncratic interactions, including between alleles driving a step change in fruit size during domestication. Our approach and findings expose an underexplored dimension of epistasis, in which cis-regulatory allelic diversity within gene regulatory networks elicits nonlinear, unpredictable interactions that shape phenotypes.

生态学Ecology

Agriculture and hot temperatures interactively erode the nest success of habitat generalist birds across the United States

农业和高温的相互作用,影响了美国各地栖息地鸟类的筑巢成功率

▲ 作者:KATHERINE S. LAUCK , ALISON KE et al.

▲ 链接:https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.add2915

▲ 摘要:

生活环境转换和气候变化是全球生物多样性降低的根本驱动因素,但这些因素往往被单独地分析。我们使用了一个长达数十年的大陆尺度数据库,其中包含超过150000个鸟类筑巢数据,以探索极端高温如何影响美国各地森林、草原,以及农业和发达地区的鸟类繁殖情况。

我们发现,在森林中的极端高温增加了筑巢的成功率,但在农业环境中筑巢的鸟类在温度达到异常高的水平时,成功孵出幼鸟的可能性要小得多。在农业环境中,建造暴露的杯状巢穴和高度保护的鸟类特别容易受到异常高温的影响。最后,我们对未来的预测表明,持续的气候变化可能会加剧栖息地转换对鸟类筑巢成功的负面影响,从而危及人类主导地区的保护工作。

▲ Abstract:

Habitat conversion and climate change are fundamental drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide but are often analyzed in isolation. We used a continental-scale, decades-long database of more than 150,000 bird nesting attempts to explore how extreme heat affects avian reproduction in forests, grasslands, and agricultural and developed areas across the US. We found that in forests, extreme heat increased nest success, but birds nesting in agricultural settings were much less likely to successfully fledge young when temperatures reached anomalously high levels. Species that build exposed cup nests and species of higher conservation concern were particularly vulnerable to maximum temperature anomalies in agricultural settings. Finally, future projections suggested that ongoing climate change may exacerbate the negative effects of habitat conversion on avian nesting success, thereby compromising conservation efforts in human-dominated landscapes.

The collapse of eastern Bering Sea snow crab
白令海东部雪蟹的急剧减少

▲ 作者:CODY S. SZUWALSKI, KERIM AYDIN, ERIN J. FEDEWA et al.

▲ 链接:https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.adf6035

▲ 摘要:

雪蟹是白令海的标志性物种,它是当地渔业的重要支柱,受到广泛的监测和管理。自2018年以来,白令海东部已经有超过100亿只雪蟹消失,2021年的数量降至历史最低点。我们认为这种数量上的“雪崩”与2018年及2019年白令海东部的海洋热浪相关。

计算出的热量需求、减少的空间分布和观察到的身体状况表明,饥饿在这场消失中起了重要作用。这一死亡事件似乎是全球海洋热浪造成的最大的活动海洋大型动物损失之一。

▲ Abstract:

The snow crab is an iconic species in the Bering Sea that supports an economically important fishery and undergoes extensive monitoring and management. Since 2018, more than 10 billion snow crab have disappeared from the eastern Bering Sea, and the population collapsed to historical lows in 2021. We link this collapse to a marine heatwave in the eastern Bering Sea during 2018 and 2019. Calculated caloric requirements, reduced spatial distribution, and observed body conditions suggest that starvation played a role in the collapse. The mortality event appears to be one of the largest reported losses of motile marine macrofauna to marine heatwaves globally.

Periodical cicadas disrupt trophic dynamics through community-level shifts in avian foraging
周期蝉对鸟类觅食的群落型转变破坏了营养动力学

▲ 作者:ZOE L. GETMAN-PICKERING, GRACE J. SOLTIS et al.

▲ 链接:https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.adi7426

▲ 摘要:

每隔13或17年,在北美东部的落叶林中,数十亿只周期蝉同时破土而出,短暂地满足了各种各样的捕食者,为评估生态系统范围内的资源脉动对复杂食物网的级联影响提供了难得的机会。

我们量化了对2021年17年蝉生存的影响,并发现超过80种鸟类机动地改变了它们的觅食方式,将蝉纳入食物范围,减少了对草食性昆虫的捕食,基本上使毛虫密度和宿主橡树上累积的草食性昆虫数量翻了一番。周期蝉这种短暂但大规模的突发情况帮助我们了解资源变化如何重新连接相互作用网络,破坏生态系统中的能量流动,并可能产生持久的影响。

▲ Abstract:

Once every 13 or 17 years within eastern North American deciduous forests, billions of periodical cicadas concurrently emerge from the soil and briefly satiate a diverse array of naive consumers, offering a rare opportunity to assess the cascading impacts of an ecosystem-wide resource pulse on a complex food web. We quantified the effects of the 2021 Brood X emergence and report that more than 80 bird species opportunistically switched their foraging to include cicadas, releasing herbivorous insects from predation and essentially doubling both caterpillar densities and accumulated herbivory levels on host oak trees. These short-lived but massive emergence events help us to understand how resource pulses can rewire interaction webs and disrupt energy flows in ecosystems, with potentially long-lasting effects.

 
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