美国洛克菲勒大学Daniel Mucida、Paul A. Muller等研究人员合作发现，微生物群调节的CART+肠神经元可自主调节血糖。这一研究成果于2020年8月27日在线发表在《科学》上。
Title: Microbiota-modulated CART+ enteric neurons autonomously regulate blood glucose
Author: Paul A. Muller, Fanny Matheis, Marc Schneeberger, Zachary Kerner, Veronica Jové, Daniel Mucida
Abstract: Abstract The gut microbiota affects tissue physiology, metabolism, and function of both the immune and nervous systems. We found that intrinsic enteric-associated neurons (iEAN) in mice are functionally adapted to the intestinal segment they occupy; ileal and colonic neurons are more responsive to microbial colonization than duodenal neurons. Specifically, a microbially-responsive subset of viscerofugal CART+ neurons, enriched in the ileum and colon, modulated feeding and glucose metabolism. These CART+ neurons send axons to the prevertebral ganglia and are poly-synaptically connected to the liver and pancreas. Microbiota depletion led to NLRP6– and Caspase 11-dependent loss of CART+ neurons, and impaired glucose regulation. Hence, iEAN subsets appear to be capable of regulating blood glucose levels independently from the central nervous system.