共有14项随机临床试验符合入选条件，包含96158名参与者。其中12项报告了随访期痴呆并被纳入主要荟萃分析，8项报告了认知功能下降，8项报告了认知测试分数改变。试验参与者的平均年龄为69岁，女性占42.2％。平均收缩压基线为154 mm Hg，平均舒张压为83.3 mm Hg。
Title: Association of Blood Pressure Lowering With Incident Dementia or Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Author: Diarmaid Hughes, Conor Judge, Robert Murphy, Elaine Loughlin, Maria Costello, William Whiteley, Jackie Bosch, Martin J. O’Donnell, Michelle Canavan
Abstract: Importance The benefit of blood pressure lowering for the prevention of dementia or cognitive impairment is unclear.
Objective To determine the association of blood pressure lowering with dementia or cognitive impairment.
Data Sources and Study Selection Search of PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL for randomized clinical trials published from database inception through December 31, 2019, that evaluated the association of blood pressure lowering on cognitive outcomes. The control groups consisted of either placebo, alternative antihypertensive agents, or higher blood pressure targets.
Data Extraction and Synthesis Data were screened and extracted independently by 2 authors. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to report pooled treatment effects and CIs.
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was dementia or cognitive impairment. The secondary outcomes were cognitive decline and changes in cognitive test scores.
Results Fourteen randomized clinical trials were eligible for inclusion (96 158 participants), of which 12 reported the incidence of dementia (or composite of dementia and cognitive impairment [3 trials]) on follow-up and were included in the primary meta-analysis, 8 reported cognitive decline, and 8 reported changes in cognitive test scores. The mean (SD) age of trial participants was 69 (5.4) years and 40 617 (42.2%) were women. The mean systolic baseline blood pressure was 154 (14.9) mm Hg and the mean diastolic blood pressure was 83.3 (9.9) mm Hg. The mean duration of follow-up was 49.2 months. Blood pressure lowering with antihypertensive agents compared with control was significantly associated with a reduced risk of dementia or cognitive impairment (12 trials; 92135 participants) (7.0% vs 7.5% of patients over a mean trial follow-up of 4.1 years; odds ratio [OR], 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.98]; absolute risk reduction, 0.39% [95% CI, 0.09%-0.68%]; I2=0.0%) and cognitive decline (8 trials) (20.2% vs 21.1% of participants over a mean trial follow-up of 4.1 years; OR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.99]; absolute risk reduction, 0.71% [95% CI, 0.19%-1.2%]; I2=36.1%). Blood pressure lowering was not significantly associated with a change in cognitive test scores.
Conclusions and Relevance In this meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials, blood pressure lowering with antihypertensive agents compared with control was significantly associated with a lower risk of incident dementia or cognitive impairment.