Title: Mammalian lipid droplets are innate immune hubs integrating cell metabolism and host defense
Author: Marta Bosch, Miguel Sánchez-álvarez, Alba Fajardo, Ronan Kapetanovic, Bernhard Steiner, Filipe Dutra, Luciana Moreira, Juan Antonio López, Rocío Campo, Montserrat Marí, Frederic Morales-Paytuví, Olivia Tort, Albert Gubern, Rachel M. Templin, James E. B. Curson, Nick Martel, Cristina Català, Francisco Lozano, Francesc Tebar, Carlos Enrich, Jesús Vázquez, Miguel A. Del Pozo, Matthew J. Sweet, Patricia T. Bozza, Steven P. Gross, Robert G. Parton, Albert Pol
Abstract: Lipid droplets (LDs) are the major lipid storage organelles of eukaryotic cells and a source of nutrients for intracellular pathogens. We demonstrate that mammalian LDs are endowed with a protein-mediated antimicrobial capacity, which is up-regulated by danger signals. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), multiple host defense proteins, including interferon-inducible guanosine triphosphatases and the antimicrobial cathelicidin, assemble into complex clusters on LDs. LPS additionally promotes the physical and functional uncoupling of LDs from mitochondria, reducing fatty acid metabolism while increasing LD-bacterial contacts. Thus, LDs actively participate in mammalian innate immunity at two levels: They are both cell-autonomous organelles that organize and use immune proteins to kill intracellular pathogens as well as central players in the local and systemic metabolic adaptation to infection.