来源:科学网 发布时间:2019/3/29 14:12:02
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《科学》论文导读:2019年3月1日

 

 
 
电气Electrical
 
 
 
 
Binodal, wireless epidermal electronic systems with in-sensor analytics for neonatal intensive care
 
新无线系统用于新生儿重症监护
 
▲ 作者:Ha Uk Chung、Bong Hoon Kim、Jong Yoon Lee、Jungyup Lee、Zhaoqian Xie,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/eaau0780
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
在通常情况下,早产儿尤其需要得到持续仔细的生命体征监护,因为他们的健康格外脆弱。为了达到这一持续性护理的水平,通常需要使用附着于婴儿皮肤的多个传感器和电极,而后者通过连线与周围的医疗仪器相连。但这些连接网络会对其他类型的临床治疗或检测造成干扰,而电极也会损伤婴儿脆弱的皮肤。此外,它们会阻碍肌肤接触,使得父母无法抱新生的孩子。
 
 
 
在此,研究人员研发了一种无线且无需电池的生命体征监测系统,它使用超薄型的皮肤样感测器,后者仅用水就能轻柔地附着于新生儿敏感的皮肤上。初步测试及正在进行的临床研究显示,它的功效堪比具最先进临床标准的检测系统。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Existing vital sign monitoring systems in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) require multiple wires connected to rigid sensors with strongly adherent interfaces to the skin. We introduce a pair of ultrathin, soft, skin-like electronic devices whose coordinated, wireless operation reproduces the functionality of these traditional technologies but bypasses their intrinsic limitations. The enabling advances in engineering science include designs that support wireless, battery-free operation; real-time, in-sensor data analytics; time-synchronized, continuous data streaming; soft mechanics and gentle adhesive interfaces to the skin; and compatibility with visual inspection and with medical imaging techniques used in the NICU. Preliminary studies on neonates admitted to operating NICUs demonstrate performance comparable to the most advanced clinical-standard monitoring systems.
 
 
地球/气候Geoscience/ Climate
 
 
 
 
Revised paleoaltimetry data show low Tibetan Plateau elevation during the Eocene
 
数据显示始新世青藏高原海拔较低
 
▲ 作者:Svetlana Botsyun、Pierre Sepulchre、Yannick Donnadieu、Camille Risi,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/eaaq1436
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
有研究利用稳定同位素古高度法对青藏高原进行了古地形重建,认为青藏高原目前的大部分高度早在始新世(约4000万年前)就已达到。然而,大气和水文动力学的变化会影响氧稳定同位素的含量,从而可能使这种重建产生偏差。
 
 
 
本研究使用了装备同位素的一般环流模型来评估始新世古地理和气候变化对古高度估算的影响。模拟结果表明,由于对流降水增加、气团混合和大面积干旱的共同作用,稳定同位素古高度测量方法不适用于始新世亚洲。相反,一个模型—数据比较表明青藏高原在始新世只达到了低到中等(不到3000米)的海拔高度。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Paleotopographic reconstructions of the Tibetan Plateau based on stable isotope paleoaltimetry methods conclude that most of the Plateau’s current elevation was already reached by the Eocene, ~40 million years ago. However, changes in atmospheric and hydrological dynamics affect oxygen stable isotopes in precipitation and may thus bias such reconstructions. We used an isotope-equipped general circulation model to assess the influence of changing Eocene paleogeography and climate on paleoelevation estimates. Our simulations indicate that stable isotope paleoaltimetry methods are not applicable in Eocene Asia because of a combination of increased convective precipitation, mixture of air masses, and widespread aridity. Rather, a model-data comparison suggests that the Tibetan Plateau only reached low to moderate (less than 3000 meters) elevations during the Eocene, reconciling oxygen isotope data with other proxies.
 
 
 
Impacts of historical warming on marine fisheries production
 
历史上的气候变暖对海洋渔业生产的影响
 
▲ 作者:Christopher M. Free、James T. Thorson、Malin L. Pinsky、Kiva L. Oken,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/979
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
海洋已经成为全球的重要食物来源及对快速增长人群的经济支持。然而,管理不良的渔场和几十年来的强烈的过度捕捞将许多种鱼置于高压之下。更重要的是,这些鱼中有许多还受到全球气候变化所致的海洋持续暖化的影响,后者对渔业的总体影响仍然基本未知。
 
 
 
本研究用温度特异性模型分析了1930~2010年的温度驱动的渔获量变化。研究人员对全球海洋中的124个物种中的235个种群进行了评估,它们代表了所报告的全球渔获量的约33%。尽管结果显示全球渔场的总体产量下降(某些区域的损失高达35%),但温度的改变对某些鱼种的影响要高于其他鱼种。尽管某些鱼群会经受负面冲击,但另外一些鱼群则预计可能会有正面反应。此外,结果提示,历史性的过度捕捞会放大气候变化的负面影响。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Climate change is altering habitats for marine fishes and invertebrates, but the net effect of these changes on potential food production is unknown. We used temperature-dependent population models to measure the influence of warming on the productivity of 235 populations of 124 species in 38 ecoregions. Some populations responded significantly positively (n = 9 populations) and others responded significantly negatively (n = 19 populations) to warming, with the direction and magnitude of the response explained by ecoregion, taxonomy, life history, and exploitation history. Hindcasts indicate that the maximum sustainable yield of the evaluated populations decreased by 4.1% from 1930 to 2010, with five ecoregions experiencing losses of 15 to 35%. Outcomes of fisheries management—including long-term food provisioning—will be improved by accounting for changing productivity in a warmer ocean.
 
 
 
 
空间Space 
 
 
 
 
Impact craters on Pluto and Charon indicate a deficit of small Kuiper belt objects
 
冥王星和冥卫一撞击坑揭示了柯伊伯带小星体的缺乏
 
▲ 作者:K. N. Singer、W. B. McKinnon、B. Gladman、S. Greenstreet、E. B. Bierhaus,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/955
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
柯伊伯带是位于太阳系边缘处的一个巨大的循轨道运行的光环样星体碎片。尽管柯伊伯带是数个大型星体(如像冥王星等矮行星)之家,但人们对直径小于100公里的柯伊伯带星体的分布所知甚少,这些星体是太阳系形成的残余物。而冥王星和其冥卫一卫星在数十亿年中通过与较小的柯伊伯带星体撞击而形成了陨石坑。
 
 
 
本研究用新视野飞船在2015年飞越时的详细图片对冥王星和冥卫一上的陨石坑进行了绘测以确定对其造成撞击的柯伊伯带星体的大小。在将近来的地质学过程(它们可抹掉较早的撞击陨石坑)纳入考虑后,研究人员在冥王星和冥卫一的表面上发现了至少40亿年之久的陨石坑,揭示了直径小于13公里的陨石坑的匮乏。这些发现与传统的碰撞平衡中的星体群不一致,相反,它们可能表明了柯伊伯带的原初性质——它们是来自太阳系最早期的碰撞较少的演化遗物。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
The flyby of Pluto and Charon by the New Horizons spacecraft provided high-resolution images of cratered surfaces embedded in the Kuiper belt, an extensive region of bodies orbiting beyond Neptune. Impact craters on Pluto and Charon were formed by collisions with other Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) with diameters from ~40 kilometers to ~300 meters, smaller than most KBOs observed directly by telescopes. We find a relative paucity of small craters ?13 kilometers in diameter, which cannot be explained solely by geological resurfacing. This implies a deficit of small KBOs (?1 to 2 kilometers in diameter). Some surfaces on Pluto and Charon are likely ?4 billion years old, thus their crater records provide information on the size-frequency distribution of KBOs in the early Solar System.
 
 
 
 
生物学Biology
 
 
 
 
Motor cortical control of vocal interaction in neotropical singing mice
 
运动皮层对热带歌唱鼠“交流”的控制
 
▲ 作者:Daniel E. Okobi Jr、Arkarup Banerjee、Andrew M. M. Matheson、Steven M. Phelps、Michael A. Long
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/983
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
为了与其他人进行成功对话,我们必须聆听他们的言辞、解读其意思并接着用我们自己的陈述做出恰当回应。这一过程需要对感官提示和肌肉反应做近乎即刻的协调,然而,人们对有关感觉运动转换的基础机制所知甚少,而这些转换令基于说话或声音交换的社会性互动成为可能。
 
 
 
阿尔斯通唱歌鼠是中美洲云雾林中的一种能大声发音的小型啮齿动物,它们会用其竞争性的二重唱来挑战竞争者,即每只歌唱鼠会依次用它们独特的高声调快速地互歌。研究人员对令唱歌鼠的这种对抗性歌唱行为成为可能的基础神经元网络进行了研究。
 
 
 
通过追踪两只小鼠相互歌唱时脑与肌肉间的电信号,科学家发现了产生每首歌音符所需的与控制肌肉有关的运动皮层区域。在运动皮层(即发声运动皮层)内确认的另一功能性活动“热点”被发现可介导进行快速准确声音互动所需的感觉运动的迅捷转化。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Like many adaptive behaviors, acoustic communication often requires rapid modification of motor output in response to sensory cues. However, little is known about the sensorimotor transformations that underlie such complex natural behaviors. In this study, we examine vocal exchanges in Alston’s singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina). We find that males modify singing behavior during social interactions on a subsecond time course that resembles both traditional sensorimotor tasks and conversational speech. We identify an orofacial motor cortical region and, via a series of perturbation experiments, demonstrate a hierarchical control of vocal production, with the motor cortex influencing the pacing of singing behavior on a moment-by-moment basis, enabling precise vocal interactions. These results suggest a systems-level framework for understanding the sensorimotor transformations that underlie natural social interactions.
 
 
 
 
材料Material
 
 
 
 
Interface and heterostructure design in polyelemental nanoparticles
 
多元纳米粒子的界面和异质结构设计
 
▲ 作者:Peng-Cheng Chen、Mohan Liu、Jingshan S. Du、Chad A. Mirkin,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/959
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
形成异质结构的纳米材料在催化、等离子体学和电子学中都有应用。现在科学家可以通过多种途径合成多元素纳米颗粒,但是人们对如何在这些结构中形成热力学相,以及如何设计和合成它们之间的特定界面,仍然知之甚少。
 
 
 
研究人员探索了钯锡合金如何与已知但具有复杂相容性的金属形成混合相。合成了含有7种元素的纳米颗粒,其中许多形成了由三界面或两界面结构组成的三相异质结构。研究人员还确定了观察的相表面和界面能量之间的平衡,并建立了设计规则来制造具有特殊异质结构的多元素体系,包括具有多达6个连接的四相纳米颗粒。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Nanomaterials that form as heterostructures have applications in catalysis, plasmonics, and electronics. Multielement nanoparticles can now be synthesized through a variety of routes, but how thermodynamic phases form in such structures and how specific interfaces between them can be designed and synthesized are still poorly understood. We explored how palladium-tin alloys form mixed-composition phases with metals with known but complex miscibilities. Nanoparticles with up to seven elements were synthesized, and many form triphase heterostructures consisting of either three-interface or two-interface architectures. Density functional theory calculations and experimental work were used to determine the balance between the surface and interfacial energies of the observed phases. From these observations, design rules have been established for making polyelemental systems with specific heterostructures, including tetraphase nanoparticles with as many as six junctions.
 
电气Electrical
 
 
 
 
Binodal, wireless epidermal electronic systems with in-sensor analytics for neonatal intensive care
 
新无线系统用于新生儿重症监护
 
▲ 作者:Ha Uk Chung、Bong Hoon Kim、Jong Yoon Lee、Jungyup Lee、Zhaoqian Xie,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/eaau0780
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
在通常情况下,早产儿尤其需要得到持续仔细的生命体征监护,因为他们的健康格外脆弱。为了达到这一持续性护理的水平,通常需要使用附着于婴儿皮肤的多个传感器和电极,而后者通过连线与周围的医疗仪器相连。但这些连接网络会对其他类型的临床治疗或检测造成干扰,而电极也会损伤婴儿脆弱的皮肤。此外,它们会阻碍肌肤接触,使得父母无法抱新生的孩子。
 
 
 
在此,研究人员研发了一种无线且无需电池的生命体征监测系统,它使用超薄型的皮肤样感测器,后者仅用水就能轻柔地附着于新生儿敏感的皮肤上。初步测试及正在进行的临床研究显示,它的功效堪比具最先进临床标准的检测系统。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Existing vital sign monitoring systems in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) require multiple wires connected to rigid sensors with strongly adherent interfaces to the skin. We introduce a pair of ultrathin, soft, skin-like electronic devices whose coordinated, wireless operation reproduces the functionality of these traditional technologies but bypasses their intrinsic limitations. The enabling advances in engineering science include designs that support wireless, battery-free operation; real-time, in-sensor data analytics; time-synchronized, continuous data streaming; soft mechanics and gentle adhesive interfaces to the skin; and compatibility with visual inspection and with medical imaging techniques used in the NICU. Preliminary studies on neonates admitted to operating NICUs demonstrate performance comparable to the most advanced clinical-standard monitoring systems.
 
 
地球/气候Geoscience/ Climate
 
 
 
 
Revised paleoaltimetry data show low Tibetan Plateau elevation during the Eocene
 
数据显示始新世青藏高原海拔较低
 
▲ 作者:Svetlana Botsyun、Pierre Sepulchre、Yannick Donnadieu、Camille Risi,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/eaaq1436
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
有研究利用稳定同位素古高度法对青藏高原进行了古地形重建,认为青藏高原目前的大部分高度早在始新世(约4000万年前)就已达到。然而,大气和水文动力学的变化会影响氧稳定同位素的含量,从而可能使这种重建产生偏差。
 
 
 
本研究使用了装备同位素的一般环流模型来评估始新世古地理和气候变化对古高度估算的影响。模拟结果表明,由于对流降水增加、气团混合和大面积干旱的共同作用,稳定同位素古高度测量方法不适用于始新世亚洲。相反,一个模型—数据比较表明青藏高原在始新世只达到了低到中等(不到3000米)的海拔高度。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Paleotopographic reconstructions of the Tibetan Plateau based on stable isotope paleoaltimetry methods conclude that most of the Plateau’s current elevation was already reached by the Eocene, ~40 million years ago. However, changes in atmospheric and hydrological dynamics affect oxygen stable isotopes in precipitation and may thus bias such reconstructions. We used an isotope-equipped general circulation model to assess the influence of changing Eocene paleogeography and climate on paleoelevation estimates. Our simulations indicate that stable isotope paleoaltimetry methods are not applicable in Eocene Asia because of a combination of increased convective precipitation, mixture of air masses, and widespread aridity. Rather, a model-data comparison suggests that the Tibetan Plateau only reached low to moderate (less than 3000 meters) elevations during the Eocene, reconciling oxygen isotope data with other proxies.
 
 
 
Impacts of historical warming on marine fisheries production
 
历史上的气候变暖对海洋渔业生产的影响
 
▲ 作者:Christopher M. Free、James T. Thorson、Malin L. Pinsky、Kiva L. Oken,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/979
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
海洋已经成为全球的重要食物来源及对快速增长人群的经济支持。然而,管理不良的渔场和几十年来的强烈的过度捕捞将许多种鱼置于高压之下。更重要的是,这些鱼中有许多还受到全球气候变化所致的海洋持续暖化的影响,后者对渔业的总体影响仍然基本未知。
 
 
 
本研究用温度特异性模型分析了1930~2010年的温度驱动的渔获量变化。研究人员对全球海洋中的124个物种中的235个种群进行了评估,它们代表了所报告的全球渔获量的约33%。尽管结果显示全球渔场的总体产量下降(某些区域的损失高达35%),但温度的改变对某些鱼种的影响要高于其他鱼种。尽管某些鱼群会经受负面冲击,但另外一些鱼群则预计可能会有正面反应。此外,结果提示,历史性的过度捕捞会放大气候变化的负面影响。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Climate change is altering habitats for marine fishes and invertebrates, but the net effect of these changes on potential food production is unknown. We used temperature-dependent population models to measure the influence of warming on the productivity of 235 populations of 124 species in 38 ecoregions. Some populations responded significantly positively (n = 9 populations) and others responded significantly negatively (n = 19 populations) to warming, with the direction and magnitude of the response explained by ecoregion, taxonomy, life history, and exploitation history. Hindcasts indicate that the maximum sustainable yield of the evaluated populations decreased by 4.1% from 1930 to 2010, with five ecoregions experiencing losses of 15 to 35%. Outcomes of fisheries management—including long-term food provisioning—will be improved by accounting for changing productivity in a warmer ocean.
 
 
 
 
空间Space 
 
 
 
 
Impact craters on Pluto and Charon indicate a deficit of small Kuiper belt objects
 
冥王星和冥卫一撞击坑揭示了柯伊伯带小星体的缺乏
 
▲ 作者:K. N. Singer、W. B. McKinnon、B. Gladman、S. Greenstreet、E. B. Bierhaus,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/955
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
柯伊伯带是位于太阳系边缘处的一个巨大的循轨道运行的光环样星体碎片。尽管柯伊伯带是数个大型星体(如像冥王星等矮行星)之家,但人们对直径小于100公里的柯伊伯带星体的分布所知甚少,这些星体是太阳系形成的残余物。而冥王星和其冥卫一卫星在数十亿年中通过与较小的柯伊伯带星体撞击而形成了陨石坑。
 
 
 
本研究用新视野飞船在2015年飞越时的详细图片对冥王星和冥卫一上的陨石坑进行了绘测以确定对其造成撞击的柯伊伯带星体的大小。在将近来的地质学过程(它们可抹掉较早的撞击陨石坑)纳入考虑后,研究人员在冥王星和冥卫一的表面上发现了至少40亿年之久的陨石坑,揭示了直径小于13公里的陨石坑的匮乏。这些发现与传统的碰撞平衡中的星体群不一致,相反,它们可能表明了柯伊伯带的原初性质——它们是来自太阳系最早期的碰撞较少的演化遗物。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
The flyby of Pluto and Charon by the New Horizons spacecraft provided high-resolution images of cratered surfaces embedded in the Kuiper belt, an extensive region of bodies orbiting beyond Neptune. Impact craters on Pluto and Charon were formed by collisions with other Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) with diameters from ~40 kilometers to ~300 meters, smaller than most KBOs observed directly by telescopes. We find a relative paucity of small craters ?13 kilometers in diameter, which cannot be explained solely by geological resurfacing. This implies a deficit of small KBOs (?1 to 2 kilometers in diameter). Some surfaces on Pluto and Charon are likely ?4 billion years old, thus their crater records provide information on the size-frequency distribution of KBOs in the early Solar System.
 
 
 
 
生物学Biology
 
 
 
 
Motor cortical control of vocal interaction in neotropical singing mice
 
运动皮层对热带歌唱鼠“交流”的控制
 
▲ 作者:Daniel E. Okobi Jr、Arkarup Banerjee、Andrew M. M. Matheson、Steven M. Phelps、Michael A. Long
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/983
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
为了与其他人进行成功对话,我们必须聆听他们的言辞、解读其意思并接着用我们自己的陈述做出恰当回应。这一过程需要对感官提示和肌肉反应做近乎即刻的协调,然而,人们对有关感觉运动转换的基础机制所知甚少,而这些转换令基于说话或声音交换的社会性互动成为可能。
 
 
 
阿尔斯通唱歌鼠是中美洲云雾林中的一种能大声发音的小型啮齿动物,它们会用其竞争性的二重唱来挑战竞争者,即每只歌唱鼠会依次用它们独特的高声调快速地互歌。研究人员对令唱歌鼠的这种对抗性歌唱行为成为可能的基础神经元网络进行了研究。
 
 
 
通过追踪两只小鼠相互歌唱时脑与肌肉间的电信号,科学家发现了产生每首歌音符所需的与控制肌肉有关的运动皮层区域。在运动皮层(即发声运动皮层)内确认的另一功能性活动“热点”被发现可介导进行快速准确声音互动所需的感觉运动的迅捷转化。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Like many adaptive behaviors, acoustic communication often requires rapid modification of motor output in response to sensory cues. However, little is known about the sensorimotor transformations that underlie such complex natural behaviors. In this study, we examine vocal exchanges in Alston’s singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina). We find that males modify singing behavior during social interactions on a subsecond time course that resembles both traditional sensorimotor tasks and conversational speech. We identify an orofacial motor cortical region and, via a series of perturbation experiments, demonstrate a hierarchical control of vocal production, with the motor cortex influencing the pacing of singing behavior on a moment-by-moment basis, enabling precise vocal interactions. These results suggest a systems-level framework for understanding the sensorimotor transformations that underlie natural social interactions.
 
 
 
 
材料Material
 
 
 
 
Interface and heterostructure design in polyelemental nanoparticles
 
多元纳米粒子的界面和异质结构设计
 
▲ 作者:Peng-Cheng Chen、Mohan Liu、Jingshan S. Du、Chad A. Mirkin,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/363/6430/959
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
形成异质结构的纳米材料在催化、等离子体学和电子学中都有应用。现在科学家可以通过多种途径合成多元素纳米颗粒,但是人们对如何在这些结构中形成热力学相,以及如何设计和合成它们之间的特定界面,仍然知之甚少。
 
 
 
研究人员探索了钯锡合金如何与已知但具有复杂相容性的金属形成混合相。合成了含有7种元素的纳米颗粒,其中许多形成了由三界面或两界面结构组成的三相异质结构。研究人员还确定了观察的相表面和界面能量之间的平衡,并建立了设计规则来制造具有特殊异质结构的多元素体系,包括具有多达6个连接的四相纳米颗粒。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Nanomaterials that form as heterostructures have applications in catalysis, plasmonics, and electronics. Multielement nanoparticles can now be synthesized through a variety of routes, but how thermodynamic phases form in such structures and how specific interfaces between them can be designed and synthesized are still poorly understood. We explored how palladium-tin alloys form mixed-composition phases with metals with known but complex miscibilities. Nanoparticles with up to seven elements were synthesized, and many form triphase heterostructures consisting of either three-interface or two-interface architectures. Density functional theory calculations and experimental work were used to determine the balance between the surface and interfacial energies of the observed phases. From these observations, design rules have been established for making polyelemental systems with specific heterostructures, including tetraphase nanoparticles with as many as six junctions.
 
(唐一尘)

 

 
 
 
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