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《自然》论文导读:2018年12月20日

 

Nature, 20 December 2018, Volume 564 Issue 7736
 
《自然》2018年12月20日第7736期564卷
 
 
生物学Biology
 
 
 
 
Stochastic synaptic plasticity underlying compulsion in a model of addiction
 
成瘾模型中随机突触可塑性
 
▲ 作者:Vincent Pascoli、Agnès Hiver、Ruud Van Zessen、Michaël Loureiro、Ridouane Achargui、Masaya Harada、Jérôme Flakowski、Christian Lüscher 
 
▲ 链接:
 
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0789-4
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
中脑缘多巴胺系统的激活增强了目标导向行为。通过重复的刺激——例如长期滥用药物——这种强化可能会变得具有强迫性,仍继续摄入甚至会面临重大负面后果。
 
 
 
在这里,研究人员让老鼠有机会自我刺激多巴胺能神经元,并观察到只有一小部分老鼠在遭受电击时能够坚持下来。强迫性压迫与眼窝额叶皮层(OFC)活动有关。
 
 
 
虽然对OFC神经元的短暂抑制能暂时缓解强迫性强化,但研究者发现,在坚持不懈的小鼠中,从OFC到纹状体的传输是永久性增强的。
 
 
 
研究人员表示,从OFC到背侧纹状体的突触强化传递会驱动强迫性强化,这是成瘾的一种明确症状。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system reinforces goal-directed behaviours. With repetitive stimulation—for example, by chronic drug abuse—the reinforcement may become compulsive and intake continues even in the face of major negative consequences. Here we gave mice the opportunity to optogenetically self-stimulate dopaminergic neurons and observed that only a fraction of miceper severed if they had to endure an electric shock. Compulsive lever pressing was associated with an activity peak in the projection terminals from the orbito frontal cortex (OFC) to the dorsal striatum. Although brief inhibition of OFC neurons temporarily relieved compulsive reinforcement, we found that transmission from the OFC to the striatum was permanently potentiated inpersevering mice. To establish causality, we potentiated these synapses in vivoin mice that stopped optogenetic self-stimulation of dopamine neurons because of punishment; this led to compulsive lever pressing, whereas depotentiation inpersevering mice had the converse effect. In summary, synaptic potentiation of transmission from the OFC to the dorsal striatum drives compulsive reinforcement, a defining symptom of addiction.
 
 
 
Structure of native lens connexin 46/50 intercellular channels by cryo-EM
 
低温电镜下联接蛋白46/50细胞间通道的结构
 
▲ 作者:Janette B.Myers、Bassam G.Haddad、Susan E.O’Neill、Dror S.Chorev、Craig C.Yoshioka、Steve L.Reichow,et al 
 
▲ 链接:
 
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0786-7
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
缝隙连接通过组装12个联接蛋白亚基建立了细胞间通讯的直接通路。不同联接蛋白亚型的协同组装会产生具有独特属性的通道,并支持跨细胞类型的通信。
 
 
 
本文采用单粒子冷冻电镜研究了由联接蛋白 46和联接蛋白50组成的间隙连接通道(Cx46/50),并首次对联接蛋白26进行了比较分析,并结合计算研究阐明了控制间隙连接选择通透性的关键能量特征。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Gap junctions establish direct pathways for cell-to-cell communication through the assembly of twelve connexin subunits that form intercellular channels connecting neighbouring cells. Co-assembly of different connexin isoforms
 
produces channels with unique properties and enables communication across celltypes. Here we used single-particle cryo-electron microscopy to investigate the structural basis of connexin co-assembly in native lens gap junction channels composed of connexin 46 and connexin 50 (Cx46/50). We provide the first comparative analysis to connexin 26 (Cx26), which—together with computational studies—elucidates key energetic features governing gap junction permselectivity. Cx46/50 adopts an open-state conformation that is distinctfrom the Cx26 crystal structure, yet it appears to be stabilized by a conserved set of hydrophobic anchoring residues. ‘Hot spots’ of genetic mutations linked to hereditary cataract formation map to the core structural–functional elements identified in Cx46/50, suggesting explanations for many of the disease-causing effects.
 
 
 
Transmission of amyloid-β protein pathology from cadaveric pituitary growth hormone
 
尸源性人类生长激素样本中β淀粉样蛋白传播证据
 
▲ 作者:Silvia A.Purro、Mark A.Farrow、JacquelineLinehan、Tamsin Nazari、David Mengel、Takaomi Saido、John Collinge,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0790-y
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
2015年发表的一篇论文报告称,曾有8名病人接受了被朊病毒污染的尸源性人类生长激素(c-hGH)治疗,且之后死于克雅病(CJD),其中4名病人的脑内出现了β淀粉样蛋白病理。
 
 
 
β淀粉样蛋白病理是大脑淀粉样血管病(CAA)和阿尔茨海默氏症的一种标志。
 
 
 
此次,研究人员获取了病人曾被暴露的部分c-hGH样本。他们采用生物化学方式分析是否存在β淀粉样蛋白和tau蛋白,结果发现若干样本的检测结果为阳性。
 
 
 
之后,研究人员为基因改造小鼠——这些小鼠会表达突变型人化淀粉样前体蛋白(APP)基因,注射了c-hGH样本。
 
 
 
注射240天后,接受原始c-hGH样本注射的小鼠产生了β淀粉样蛋白沉积和CAA,但是各种对照组小鼠几乎完全没有出现这种情况。
 
 
 
这提供了实验证据支持一种假设:β淀粉样蛋白病理可以通过医源性方式进行人际传播。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
We previously reported the presence of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) deposits in individuals with Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) who had been treated during childhood with human cadaveric pituitary-derived growth hormone (c-hGH) contaminated with prions. The marked deposition of parenchymal and vascular Aβ in these relatively young individuals with treatment-induced (iatrogenic) CJD (iCJD), in contrast to other prion-disease patients and population controls, allied with the ability of Alzheimer’s disease brain homogenates to seed Aβ deposition in laboratory animals, led us to argue that the implicated c-hGH batches might have been contaminated with Aβ seeds as well as with prions. However, this was necessarily an association, and not an experimental, study inhumans and causality could not be concluded. Given the public health importanceof our hypothesis, we proceeded to identify and biochemically analyse archivedvials of c-hGH. Here we show that certain c-hGH batches to which patients with iCJD and Aβ pathology were exposed have substantial levels of Aβ40, Aβ42 and tau proteins, and that this material can seed the formation of Aβ plaques and cerebral Aβ−amyloid angiopathy in intracerebrally inoculated mice expressing a mutant, humanized amyloid precursor protein. These results confirm the presence of Aβ seeds in archived c-hGH vials and are consistent with the hypothesized iatrogenic human transmission of Aβ pathology. This experimental confirmation has implications for both the prevention and the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, and should prompt a review of the risk of iatrogenic transmission of Aβ seeds by medical and surgical procedures long recognized to pose a risk of accidental prion transmission.
 
 
 
 
古生物学Paleontology
 
 
 
 
Soft-tissue evidence for homeothermy and crypsis in a Jurassic ichthyosaur
 
侏罗纪鱼龙恒温和保护色的软组织证据
 
▲ 作者:JohanLindgren、Peter Sjövall、Volker Thiel、Wenxia Zheng、Shosuke Ito、KazumasaWakamatsu,et al
 
▲ 链接:
 
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0775-x
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
鱼龙是一种已经灭绝的海洋爬行动物,与现代齿鲸有着明显的外部相似性。
 
 
 
研究人员分析了狭翼鱼龙属的一个保存完好的鱼龙样本的皮肤组织成分,该样本具有1.8亿年左右的历史。
 
 
 
他们发现了鱼龙原始光滑的皮肤残留。其皮肤仍具有弹性,由真皮、表皮和皮下脂肪组成。
 
 
 
皮下脂肪是现代海洋哺乳动物的一个特征,它可以抵御寒冷,帮助漂浮,这是首次鉴定出鱼龙脂肪化石,证实鱼龙为温血动物。
 
 
 
研究人员还发现,鱼龙皮肤的着色模式表明鱼龙具有“反影”,即下腹部颜色较浅,而上表面颜色较深。
 
 
 
这种着色模式可见于许多现代海洋哺乳动物,用于伪装、抵御紫外线及调节热量。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Ichthyosaurs are extinct marine reptiles that display a notable external similarity to modern toothed whales. Here we show that this resemblance is more than skin deep. We apply a multi disciplinary experimental approach to characterize the cellular and molecular composition of integumental tissues in an exceptionally preserved specimen of the Early Jurassic ichthyosaur Stenopterygius. Our analyses recovered still-flexible remnants of the original scaleless skin, which comprises morphologically distinct epidermal and dermal layers. These are underlain by insulating blubber that would have augmented streamlining, buoyancy and homeothermy. Additionally, we identify endogenous proteinaceous and lipid constituents, together with keratinocytes and branched melanophores that contain eumelanin pigment. Distributional variation of melanophores across the body suggests countershading, possibly enhanced by physiological adjustments of colour to enable photoprotection, concealment and/or thermoregulation. Convergence of ichthyosaurs with extant marine amniotes thus extends to the ultra structural and molecular levels, reflecting the omnipresent constraints of their shared adaptation to pelagic life.
 
 
 
 
地球科学Geoscience
 
 
 
 
Origin of spatial variation in US East Coast sea-level trends during 1900–2017
 
1900~2017年美国东海岸海平面变化趋势的空间变化起源
 
▲ 作者:ChristopherG. Piecuch、Peter Huybers、Carling C.Hay、Andrew C.Kemp、Martin P.Tingley,et al 
 
▲ 链接:
 
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0787-6
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
确定相对海平面(海平面相对于地壳的高度)的历史趋势成因是预测未来变化的先决条件。
 
 
 
在过去的一个世纪里,美国东海岸的变化速度在空间上是多变的,相对海平面在中大西洋海湾的上升速度要快于在南大西洋湾和缅因州湾。
 
 
 
这里,研究人员使用概率方法分析了仪器数据和重构模型,表明1900~2017年间地壳垂直运动对美国东海岸相对海平面变化趋势的区域空间差异起主导作用。
 
 
 
研究还发现,在这一时期,相对海平面的变化趋势出现了一个与冰川消融无关的沿海梯度。
 
 
 
总之,结果表明,美国东海岸相对海平面长期上升速度的空间变化,主要是由地质过程造成的,这些地质过程将以类似的速度持续数百年。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
Identifying the causes of historical trends in relative sea level—the height of the sea surface relative to Earth’s crust—is a prerequisite for predicting future changes. Rates of change along the eastern coast of the USA (the US East Coast) during the past century were spatially variable, and relative sea level rose faster along the Mid-Atlantic Bight than along the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Maine. Past studies suggest that Earth’s ongoing response to the last deglaciation, surface redistribution of ice and water and changes in ocean circulation contributed considerably to this large-scale spatial pattern. Here we analyse instrumental data and proxy reconstructions  using probabilistic methods to show that vertical motions of Earth’s crust exerted the dominant control on regional spatial differences in relative sea-level trends along the US East Coast during 1900–2017, explaining most of the large-scale spatial variance. Rates of coastal subsidence caused by ongoing relaxation of the peripheral forebulge associated with the last deglaciationare strongest near North Carolina, Maryland and Virginia. Such structure indicates that Earth’s elastic lithosphere is thicker than has been assumed in other models. We also find a substantial coastal gradient in relative sea-level trends over this period that is unrelated to deglaciation and suggests contributions from twentieth-century redistribution of ice and water. Our results indicate that the majority of large-scale spatial variation in long-term rates of relative sea-level rise on the US East Coast is due to geological processes that will persist at similar rates for centuries.
 
 
 
Chemical differentiation, cold storage and remobilization of magma in the Earth’s crust
 
地壳中岩浆的化学分化、冷凝和再活动
 
▲ 作者:M. D. Jackson、J. Blundy、R. S. J. Sparks
 
▲ 链接:
 
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0746-2
 
 
 
▲ 摘要:
 
地壳中岩浆的形成、储存和化学分化在火成岩地质学和火山学中具有重要意义。
 
 
 
最近的数据正在挑战一个多世纪以来支撑地壳岩浆活动模型的高熔分“岩浆房”范式,并指出岩浆通常储存在低熔分的“泥浆储层”中。
 
 
 
泥浆储层的多孔和渗透性框架由紧密堆积的晶体构成,但地壳岩浆作用的许多共同特征尚未使用“岩浆房”或“泥浆储层”的概念进行解释。
 
 
 
本研究发现,反应熔体流动是一个关键的,但迄今为止一直被忽视。泥浆储层中的反应熔体流动产生低结晶度、化学分化的(硅质)岩浆,这些岩浆上升形成较浅的侵入体或喷发到地表。
 
 
 
研究人员认为,岩浆的储存和分化的实现主要依赖于长期泥浆储层中的反应性熔体流动,而非岩浆房内的分级结晶过程。
 
 
 
▲ Abstract
 
The formation, storage and chemical differentiation of magma in the Earth’s crustis of fundamental importance in igneous geology and volcanology. Recent data are challenging the high-melt-fraction ‘magma chamber’ paradigm that has underpinned models of crustal magmatism for over a century, suggesting instead that magma is normally stored in low-melt-fraction ‘mush reservoirs’. A mush reservoir comprises a porous and permeable framework of closely packed crystals with melt present in the pore space. However, many common features of crustal magmatism have not yet been explained by either the ‘chamber’ or ‘mush reservoir’ concepts. Here we show that reactive melt flow is a critical, but hitherto neglected, process in crustal mush reservoirs, caused by buoyant melt percolating upwards through, and reacting with, the crystals. Reactive melt flow in mush reservoirs produces the low-crystallinity, chemicallydifferentiated (silicic) magmas that ascend to form shallower intrusions orerupt to the surface. These magmas can host much older crystals, stored at low and even sub-solidus temperatures, consistent with crystal chemistry data. Changes in local bulk composition caused by reactive melt flow, rather than large increases in temperature, produce the rapid increase in melt fraction that remobilizes these cool- or cold-stored crystals. Reactive flow can also produce bimodality in magma compositions sourced from mid- to lower-crustal reservoirs. Trace-element profiles generated by reactive flow are similar to those observed in a well studied reservoir now exposed at the surface. We propose that magma storage and differentiation primarily occurs by reactivemelt flow in long-lived mush reservoirs, rather than by the commonly invoked process of fractional crystallization in magma chambers.(唐一尘)
 

 

 
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